REDUCING MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG STUDENTS WITH PSEUDO-DYSCALCULIA IN IBADAN THROUGH NUMERICAL COGNITION AND EMOTIONAL FREEDOM TECHNIQUES: MODERATING EFFECT OF MATHEMATICS EFFICACY
Anxiety in mathematics is a critical challenge facing secondary school students in Nigeria. Previous studies with focus on the improvement of this challenge are scarce. Specifically, there is paucity of studies using Numerical Cognition and Emotional Freedom techniques in solving the above challenges, This study therefore investigated the effects of numerical cognition and emotional freedom techniques on mathematics anxiety among non-science students with pseudo-dyscalculia in Oyo State. Pretest, post-test, control group quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. One hundred and two students were sampled through simple random sampling. Mathematics Anxiety Scale (α = 0.89), Mathematics Efficacy (α = 0.86) and Pseudo-dyscalculia scale (α = 0.93) were administered to obtain data for the study. Therapeutic packages used for the intervention were Numerical Cognition and Emotional Freedom. Seven hypotheses were tested at 0.01 level of significance. Data was analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The study revealed main effect of treatment on Mathematics Anxiety; F (2,109) = 173.020, p<.01. Meridian-Based intervention was more effective (mean = 33.78) than Numerical cognition (mean = 45.35) in the reduction of Mathematics anxiety. There was significant main effect ; F(1, 109 = 21.00, p<.01); interactive effect F(2, 109 = 6.116, p<.01 of mathematics efficacy and Treatment on mathematics anxiety of the participants. The two packages were effective in reducing mathematics anxiety among the participants. Based on the findings, Educational Psychologists, Counselling Psychologist and other educational related bodies could adopt the packages for educational diagnosis to improve academic performance of students with academic phobia.
Agwagah, U. N. V. 2001. The teaching of number bases in junior secondary school mathematics. The use of the base
board. ABACUS. The Journal of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria (Mathematics Education Series).
Arnazigo, J.C. (2000). Mathematics phobia diagnosis and prescription. National mathematical center 1st Annual
Ashcraft, Mark H. (2002). Math Anxiety: Personal, Educational, and Cognitive Consequences, Current Directions in
Psychological Science, 11 (5), 181-185.
Ashcraft, Mark H. and Kirk, Elizabeth P.(2001). The Relationships Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety and
Performance, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(2), 224-237.
Bamidele, R., (2005). Mathematics not a dreadful subject. Daily Sun, Aug. 30: 22.
Bandura A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: Worth; 1997.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28,
Bandura, A. (1991). Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-regulatory mechanisms. In R. A.
Dienstbier (Ed.), Perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 38, pp. 69-164). Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought & action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-
Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Bandura, A., and Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative Self-Efficacy and Goal Effects Revisited. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 88 (1), 87-99.
Benor, D. J., Ledger, K., Toussaint, L., Hett, G., and Zaccaro, D. (2008). Pilot study of Emotional Freedom Technique
(EFT), Wholistic Hybrid derived from EMDR and EFT (WHEE) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for
Treatment of Test Anxiety in University Students. Abstract presented at the Tenth Annual Toronto Energy
Psychology Conference, October 25.
Betiku, O. F. (2002). Factors responsible for poor performance of Students in School Mathematics: Suggested
remedies. In Matt. A. G. Akale (Ed.) Proceedings of the 43d Annual Conference of STAN (pp. 342 - 349).
Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books Plc.
Betz, N. E. (1978). Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of math anxiety in college students. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 25 (5), 441-448.
Betz, N. E., and Hackett, G. (1983). The relationship of mathematics self-efficacy expectations to the selection of
science-based college majors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23, 329-345.
Byrd, P.G (1982). A descriptive study of mathematics anxiety: Its nature and antecedents. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 43, (8-A), 2583. (University Microfilms No. 8300843)
Burns, Marilyn.(1998) Math: Facing an American Phobia. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications,
Callahan R.J. (2001). Raising and lowering of heart rate variability: some clinical findings of Thought Field Therapy.
Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57(10):1175-1186.
Collins, A., Brown, J. S., and Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching students the craft of reading,
writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert
Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Collins, J. L. (1984). Self-efficacy and ability in achievement behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford
University Stanford University, at Stanford, California
Feinstein, D. (2008). Energy psychology in disaster relief. Traumatology, 141:1, 124-137.
Feinstein, D. (2005). An overview of research in energy psychology. Association for Comprehensive Energy
Fennema, E. (1990). Justice, equity, and mathematics education. In E. Fennema & G. C. Leder (Eds.), Mathematics
and Gender (pp. 1-9). New York: Teachers College Press.
Fennema, E., and Sherman, J. A. (1978). Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement, spatial visualization
and affective factors: A further study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 9, 189-203.
Fennema, E. and Carpenter, T. P. (1998). New perspectives on g
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.